Antidepressants - What is it? Tranquilizers and antidepressants


The pace of modern 'crazy' life, an endless flow of information that a person has to handle on a daily basis, as well as many others, most of them are negative factors that can not stand the body and mind. , And often overwhelmed by drugs or other potent substances, eventually lead to the use of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and various complex diseases, such as depression.

Infectious Diseases and Cardiovascular System Diseases - The number of cases surpasses that of twentieth-century leaders, according to predictions made by medical depression analysts in the 20th century. Depressive disorders, based on both natural and synthetic ingredients will struggle with different drugs.

Antidepressants - What is it? Are they and whether these drugs cure depression or only ease its symptoms? What are the advantages and disadvantages of such drugs? This article will try to answer these and other questions about the antidepressant effects and respect results of their use.

What is it?

As the name implies, antidepressants (also called timoleptikov) - psychotropic drugs work against depression. The increased anxiety and excessive stress of this drug significantly reduces or even completely disappears thanks to depression and insomnia, insomnia. In this group of drugs the adjective chemical structure and composition, and the mechanism of action are both different.


How does it work?

Effects of antidepressants

Let's start with the anti-depressant - that: the body destroys or wounds the human soul. Let's see if these drugs work. Nerve cells, constantly exchanging information between them - neurons in the human brain consist of a plural. The transmission of such information requires specific messenger substances - neurotransmitters, pierced through slits in the synaptic space between neurons.

Modern researchers have identified more than 30 different neurotransmitters, but development and depression certainly have a "direct" attitude to only three of them: serotonin, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine. According to research data, frustration occurs when there is a significant quantitative decrease in neurotransmitters interacting with neurons in the field. The effect of antidepressants was observed to increase the number of relevant mediators and normalize the biochemical balance of the brain.

A little history

Before moving on to contemporary types of contemporary groups and antidepressants, briefly describe the history of their discovery.

By the middle of the twentieth century, depression and similar symptoms were treated with various herbal preparations up to various pneumonia conditions. "Set the mood" has been used in a variety of exciting compositions, which include representatives of caffeine, ginseng or opiates. Try bromine salts or medicines based on the panacea. Also use a variety of exercises and physiotherapy treatments whose effectiveness has been quite low.

The drug "Promethazine" after antidepressants was developed by the twentieth century in the first 50 ies, was originally used for anesthesia during surgery. Pharmacologists have tried to improve the anti-depressant and anti-depressant effects of the drug, with the result being "Chlorpromazine" by 1951, which was widely used in medical practice, to treat depression. Today, this drug is known as "Chlorpromazine".

In the late 60 ies of Swiss physicians of the last century, this drug "Iproniazid" as lechivshimi patients with tuberculosis was characterized by a rather unusual side effect. Patients receiving it, the mood was high. Gradually it began to use mental habits such as tuberculosis, he helped very little. Around the same time a German researcher Ronald Koon discovered the drug "Imipramine".

The first timoleptikov opened led to the rapid development of pharmacological research in this area and the creation of new drugs to fight the causes of symptoms and depression.


Modern taxonomy

There is also a classification based on how antidepressants affect biochemical processes in the human body:

Tricyclic antidepressants - tricyclic timoanaleptiki.

MAOIs - Monoamine oxidase inhibitors:

- irreversible ("tranylcypromine," "phenelzine");

- Reversible ("Pirazidol", "Moclobemide").

SSRI - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors;

IOZSIN - serotonin reuptake inhibitors and noradrenaline;

or NaSSAs - noradrenergic or specific serotonergic and antidepressants.

Also, there are a number of antidepressant drugs that cannot be imposed on any of these groups.

TCA in TCA: tricyclic antidepressants, what is it?

Drugs got its name from the tricyclic group of underlying triple carbon rings such as "Nortriptyline", "Imipramine" and "Amiltriptilin". These antidepressant drugs help increase the number of neurotransmitters in the brain called norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and serotonin (happiness hormone). Neurons - This can be done by reducing the cost of these nerve cells.

Due to the fact that the receipt of this drug has been blocked not only the necessary neurotransmitters, there are many different side effects. The group of tricyclic antidepressants may have the following side effects:


Translations into Assamese:


Dry mouth;



Heart rate acceleration - pulses;


Low energy and libido;

Anxiety or worry.

These drugs are usually prescribed by a doctor in the first place as they are the most studied and the effects of their use are well known.


MAOIs - Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Preparations "Iproniazid" open one of the first few, as well as other drugs of this group, such as "isocarboxazid," "tranylcypromine" inhibits the monoamine oxidase enzyme response, nerve endings. For this reason, neurotransmitters are not responsible for our mood, such as serotonin, noradrenaline and tyramine, break down and slowly accumulates in the brain.

MAOIs for most prescribed antidepressants, atypical depression, or when the drug did not come to the tricyclic group and did not have the desired results. The advantage of this group of drugs is the fact that they do not have an irresistible effect, and, conversely, stimulate mental processes.

As well as tricyclic drugs, MAOIs have no immediate effect on humans - the effect of antidepressants comes a few weeks after the start of reception.

It is true that MAO inhibitors cause many side effects (reluctance and side effects with medications for coughs and common colds, and blood pressure can cause life-threatening mounds) but fairly rigid diet causes when administered such drugs rarely when other treatments did not help.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

We tested a group of TCAs and MAOIs - these are the most recently opened and well-studied drugs. But the 'older' generation of antidepressants has gradually replaced the action of more modern drugs neurotransmitters, blocking not all, but only a single one - serotonin, the neurons of its reverse takeover. This increases the concentration and has therapeutic effects.

For the inclusion of modern SSRI drugs such as "Flexitin", "Sertraline", "Zoloft", "Paroxetine" and others. Less side effects of this group of drugs are noticeable, and they do not affect the human body so much.

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors and noradrenaline

These are fairly new drugs, which are covered by third generation antidepressants. They started production in the 90 ies in the middle of the XX century. Antidepressants such as "Cymbalta", "Effexor" block the reuptake of serotonin, drugs such as not only, but also noripinefrina, but also drugs such as "Wellbutrin" and drugs such as "Zyban" prevent the return of norepinephrine and dopamine.

Medication side effects in this group are much smaller than others, and they are expressed rather unhealthy. After receiving antidepressants, inhibitors such as "duloxetine" and "bupropione" can increase the weight and small dysfunction of the sexual sphere.

Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants - NaSSAs

Another NaSSA antidepressant drug of the contemporary group slows down or even stops the occupation of norepinephrine noradrenaline synapses, thereby increasing its concentration. Such drugs as "Remeron", "Lerivon" and "Serzon" block the receptor serotonin.

Medications in the group have mild types of unpleasant side effects such as drowsiness, dry mouth increased appetite and associated weight gain. Antidepressant cancellation This team performs without any major problems.

In addition to the antidepressants above the basic group, there are a number of drugs that can not be imposed on one of them. They differ in both chemical composition and mechanism of action. These include, for example, drugs such as "Bupropion", "Hypericin", "Tianeptine", "Nefazodone" and many more.


Alternative methods

Today, foreign experts are increasingly using depression medications that treat neurotransmitters and affect on neurotransmitters, but also on conditions of the endocrine system, such as the adrenal glands, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. These drugs, such as "Aminoglutethimide" and "ketoconazole", inhibit the synthesis of some adrenal hormones cortisol, but they have many side effects and negative effects on the endocrine system.

The second group of antidepressant effects is commonly referred to as antalarmina receptor plaintiff, which combines the positive qualities of tranquilizers and antidepressants. In addition to the pharmacological treatment of the depressive state, there are increasingly used techniques such as intermittent normobaric hypoxia and plasmapheresis, mild therapy, as well as many others that reduce the improvement of symptoms and signs.

Front to back

Most of those who take antidepressants agree that it is a very effective drug, especially if it is taken at the same time as administered by a specialist course of therapy. It should be borne in mind that these drugs and their dosage under whose control, a doctor may be appointed and take them. Don’t expect an instant improvement. As a rule, go through 3-4 weeks after the start of systematic administration in the sense of hopelessness and loss of interest in life, as well as drowsiness, apathy and depression.

The biggest disadvantage of these drugs is the antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, which in itself suppresses their filling with a sharp and uncontrolled termination.

How to apply?

1. Be sure to tell your doctor if you catch heart, kidney or liver disease.

2. Antidepressants work individually, so the specialist will select a drug that is especially suitable for you.

3. In some cases, one medication is not enough, your doctor may prescribe multiple simultaneous receptions (tranquilizers and antidepressants, antipsychotics and no anticonvulsant drugs).Based on the diagnosis and monitoring of your somatic condition, a specialist will choose drugs that will be able to complement each other and will not have a negative effect on the human body.

4. You can't stop taking this antidepressant medication suddenly and without consultation with a specialist as this depression can certainly have a variety of bad and unpleasant physiological reactions.

5. Many ask if it is possible to drink antidepressants and alcohol together. All prescriptions of the drug mentioned that it is definitely unacceptable, because it can cause serious damage to the nervous system, or death.

Withdrawal or addiction?

In that case, if you take antidepressants for a long time, and then, for some reason, stop suddenly, such emotions can cause discomfort such as variable behavior, fatigue, muscle aches, dizziness. All of these symptoms are called antidepressant discontinuation syndrome.

This is why doctors gradually recommend reducing the dose of the drug and do so under the supervision of specialists. Just to help professionals relieve discomfort, having to pick up the necessary normotonics and preparations on the basis of plants. If the drug is taken uncontrollably, and then its appointment is abruptly canceled, the cancellation of antidepressant type can lead to sleep disturbances, increased anxiety and problems with the cardiovascular system. In addition, the following symptoms may occur:

Unreasonable fear;

Flu-like symptoms;

Nausea, vomiting;

Obstruction and pain in the gastrointestinal tract;

Adjustment, and losing head;


Appearance vibration.

Instead of a conclusion

From all of the above, it can be concluded that such drugs as antidepressants, are powerful and quite dangerous, they are modern drugs that can cope with depression. However, before you take them, be sure to consult a specialist - a psychiatrist or psychoneurologist, who will be able to find out what form of the disease you have and what medications will help you deal with it.